L27 ORTHOGONAL ARRAY PDF

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In this study, Taguchi L27 experimental design was utilized to optimize adsorption of Reactive Orange 12 RO 12 dye onto magnetic manganese oxide and manganese ferrite MO-MnF nanocomposite.

The experimental design was constructed with five factors solution pH, RO 12 dye concentration, MO-MnF dose, contact time, and reaction temperature at three different levels. Optimum values of 2. This adsorption process proficiently followed pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models and exhibited applicability of Langmuir monolayer adsorption with maximum adsorption capacity of Adsorption, Reactive Orange 12 dye, magnetic nanoparticles, Taguchi optimization.

Release of industrial effluents containing toxic synthetic dyes into the aquatic environment has become a serious problem towards scientific community.

Azo dyes are the most widely used synthetic dyes in industry and problems associated with most of the azo dyes are their stability, recalcitrant to microbial biodegradation, colorant and even potentially carcinogenic and toxic to human being [1,2]. The release of colored substance even at very low concentrations can cause serious damage because these dyes prevent sunlight penetration and then have a pejorative effect on photosynthesis process in aquatic ecosystem [3,4].

Reactive Orange 12 RO 12 is an anionic dye and is very frequently used for coloring silk, wool, leather, jute and cotton and can be applied as biological staining, dermatology, veterinary medicine, and green ink manufacture [5].

The anionic dyes are the brightest class of soluble dyes and produce severe environmental and health hazards [6,7]. RO 12 is toxic for humans and animals by causing permanent injuries to their eyes [5,8]. On account of above stated hazards of toxic dyes, the environmental scientists have shown remarkable interest to design and develop innovative approaches for their efficient and quantitative elimination by simple, economical and fast techniques.

An environmentally benign technique with efficient removal efficiency in a short time with minimum requirements of chemicals is greatly recommended. The adsorption process is one of the most effective treatment techniques for removal of wide range of pollutants owing to its high efficiency, simplicity of design, flexibility, less sludge generation, and availability of a large number of adsorbents [20,21].

A nanoscale material possesses some physical properties which make it a potential candidate as an adsorbent for remediation of toxic dyes, heavy metals, and other pollutants from polluted waters considering their unusual properties like high surface area, high number of reactive atoms, high mechanical and thermal strength and large number of vacant reactive surface sites in comparison to bulk particles [25].

They can be functionalized easily with diverse chemical species to enhance their adsorption selectivity towards a particular pollutant. Higher surface area per mass provides more active sites for surface chemistry.

However, post adsorption recovery of nano-adsorbents for reuse and regeneration involves centrifugation which implicates extra cost and time. Separation of magnetic nanoscale materials using external magnetic field for easy collection from wastewater offers a solution to this problem [26].

Magnetic nanoparticles with super paramagnetic behaviors are receiving great importance due to their improved physical properties like high surface area and porosity, ease of functionalization and chemical stability. More importantly they provide several advantages due to their super paramagnetic behavior while designing separation and recovery units in complex heterogeneous systems [27].

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Moreover, magnetic separation technology could be cheaper than the conventional separation methods. In addition to develop novel adsorbents with high functionality towards toxic dyes, several mathematical models can be accomplished in such adsorption processes for determination of relevance and evaluation of statistical significance of various process variables and their simultaneous interaction [30].

Multivariate designing tools can perform lateral estimations and expressions of process variables with minimum number of experimental data points, which reduces the experimental time tremendously. Moreover, multivariate optimization techniques are far better than one way classification in order to obtain exact concepts about the mutual interactions between experimental parameters [31]. In view of above, we have reported a facile method for synthesis of manganese oxide and manganese ferrite MO-MnF magnetic nanocomposite for adsorption of RO 12 dye.

In this adsorption study, the effect of each process variables were studied in details and the adsorption process was optimized by Taguchi L27 orthogonal array design for maximizing the RO 12 dye removal efficiency.

The contribution of experimental parameters onto dye removal efficiency was determined from Taguchi design of experiment. Furthermore, several conventional kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic analysis were also performed to understand the adsorption mechanism. RO 12 dye powders were purchased from Leo Chemical Pvt. India and used for preparing the aqueous solutions of different dye concentration for batch adsorption study.

The RO 12 dye adsorption experiments were carried out in batch mode as follows: At every stage, the supernatant sample was immediately separated from the adsorbent by applying magnetic field and analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry at maximum wavelength over working concentrations.

Taguchi Orthogonal Arrays

In this synthesis process, Both the dissolved solutions were then mixed to the NaOH solution thoroughly for formation of brownish floc. Taguchi design of experiment was proposed by Genichi Taguchi [32], which simplified the statistical design efforts by using orthogonal array. Application of this method can considerably minimize the costs and number of experiments.

Taguchi experimental design has been applied successfully to optimize various physicochemical processes since last decade [] including optimization of adsorption processes [] due to its ability to analyze the mutual involvement of multiple experimental variables at a time. Orthogonal arrays reduce the number of experiments and ANOVA calculates the influence of each process variables onto the output.

The layout of the orthogonal array orthogonwl five operational variables, each taken at three levels is shown in Table 2. The XRD pattern of the prepared adsorbent Fig.

Two strong peaks of manganese oxide and five peaks of orthoggonal ferrite can be observed in the in diffractogram. The FTIR study confirms the presence of metal oxygen vibrational modes arising from Fe—O stretching vibrations and Mn—O stretching vibrations of manganese ferrite and manganese oxide nanoparticles at cm—1 and cm—1 [42].

Room temperature VSM data shown that the saturation magnetization of the powder sample is Thus the composite has been conveniently recovered from the aqueous solution by an external magnetic field and could have potential application as a magnetic nano-scale adsorbent to remove pollutants. The main objective of this Taguchi based optimization was to define the optimum experimental conditions for maximum RO 12 dye removal efficiency. The contribution of the experimental parameters were calculated as From the response table Table 3 l2 Fig.

The experimental results were also predicted by Taguchi experimental design and the experimental and predicted values are shown in Table 2. The linear regression plot of experimental and Taguchi model predicted values are depicted in Fig. Additionally, three replicates of optimum experimental conditions were performed at lab in order to check the potentiality of the predicted values by Taguchi model. It was found that the observed experimental values In ANOVA, the p-value indicates the importance of a parameter in a model, and the F-values Fisher test exhibits the level of importance of the parameter in the model, irrespective of its positive or a negative effect.

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However, out of five parameter, solution pH is the most critical factor highest F value Effects of various experimental orthogonql such as initial solution irthogonal, adsorbent dose, orthhogonal RO 12 dye concentrations, and contact time were systematically explored in this study. Effect of initial solution pH in the range of 2. It is clear that the RO adsorption capacity increases with increase in initial dye concentration at a fixed adsorbent dose.

The higher adsorption capacity at higher dye concentration at a orthogoonal adsorbent dose is because of stronger interaction between dye molecule and adsorbent at higher ionic concentration of RO 12 [43].

In order to explore the arfay of adsorbent dose on the process, experiments were conducted by varying the adsorbent dose 0. As the adsorbent dose has increased, the availability of active surface sites of adsorbent also increased which in turn increases orrthogonal uptake percentage of RO 12 dye. Unsaturated active sites of adsorbent surface at higher dose and overlapping in available surface area may reduce orthogojal total effective surface area which in turn decreases the adsorption capacity at higher dose [21].

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L27 Orthogonal Array

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Request a new password via email. Adsorption, Reactive Orange 12 dye, magnetic nanoparticles, Taguchi optimization 1. Materials and methods High purity MnCl2. Taguchi design of experiments Taguchi design of experiment was proposed by Genichi Taguchi [32], which simplified the statistical design efforts by using orthogonal array.

Taguchi optimization The main objective of this Taguchi based optimization was to define ortohgonal optimum experimental conditions for maximum RO 12 dye removal efficiency. Effect of various experimental parameters on adsorption of RO 12 Effects of various experimental parameters aeray as initial solution pH, adsorbent dose, initial RO 12 dye concentrations, and contact time were systematically explored in this study.

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